January 30, 2015: Based on reader feedback, section 4 “Do you have enough database connections?” has been revised.

Database access is a core feature of most applications. Based on our experience, it seems that for at least 80% of all applications we see, simple database performance tuning can speed up applications significantly.

Fortunately, there isn’t a lot of rocket science involved until you get really deep under the hood of database tuning. When you’re ready to take database tuning to the next level, there are many great tools around for you to consider, for example from our friends at Vivid Cortex. For this post, however, we will only focus on quick wins that you can easily achieve without any help from third parties.

Step 1. Is your database server healthy?

First and foremost, make sure that the host that’s serving your database process has sufficient resources available. This includes CPU, memory, and disk space.


CPU will most likely not be a bottleneck, but database servers induce continuous base load on machines. To keep the host responsive, make sure that it has at the very least two CPU cores available.

I will assume that at least some of your hosts are virtualized. As a general rule of thumb, when monitoring virtual machines, also monitor the virtual host that the machines run on. CPU metrics of individual virtual machines won’t show you the full picture. Numbers like CPU ready time are of particular importance.

Image showing the CPU ready time and other numbers of an ESXi host
CPU ready time is a considerable factor when assigning CPU time to virtual machines


Keep in mind that memory usage is not the only metric to keep an eye on. Memory usage does not tell you how much additional memory may be needed. The important number to look at is page faults per seconds.

Showing page faults per second
Page faults is the real indicator when it comes to your host’s memory requirements

Having thousands of page faults per second indicates that your hosts are out of memory (this is when you start to hear your server’s hard drive grinding away).

Disk space

Because of indices and other performance improvements, databases use up a LOT more disk space than what the actual data itself requires (indices, you know). NoSQL databases in particular (Cassandra and MongoDB for instance) eat up a lot more disk space than you would expect. MongoDB takes up less RAM than a common SQL database, but it’s a real disk space hog.

I can’t emphasize this too much: make sure you have lots of disk space available on your hard drive. Also, make sure your database runs on a dedicated hard drive, as this should keep disk fragmentation caused by other processes to a minimum.

Showing disk metrics like throughput, IOPS, disk latency and space usage
Disk latency is an indicator for overloaded harddrives

One number to keep an eye on is disk latency. Depending on hard drive load, disk latency will increase, leading to a decrease in database performance. What can you do about this? Firstly, try to leverage your application’s and database’s caching mechanisms as much as possible. There is no quicker and more cost-effective way of moving the needle.

If that still does not yield the expected performance, you can always add additional hard drives. Read performance can be multiplied by simply mirroring your hard drives. Write performance really benefits from using RAID 1 or RAID 10 instead of, let’s say, RAID 6. If you want to get your hands dirty on this subject, read up on disk latency and I/O issues.

Step 2. Who is accessing the database?

Once your database is residing on healthy hardware you should take a look at which applications are actually accessing the database. If one of your applications or services suffers from bad database performance, do not jump to the conclusion that you know which application or service is responsible for the bad performance.

Showing the services that access a database
Knowing which services access a database is vital for finding database performance bottlenecks

When talking about inferior database performance, you’re really talking about two different things. On one hand, the database as a whole may be affected. On the other hand, the database may be just a single service that’s experiencing bad performance.

If all of the database’s clients experience bad performance, go back and check if your host is truly healthy. Chances are that your hardware is not up to the challenge. If there is only a single service that’s suffering from bad database response times, dig deeper into that service’s metrics to find out what’s causing the problem.

3. Understand the load and individual response time of each service

If an individual service is having bad database performance, you should take a deeper look into the service’s communication with the database. Which queries are executed? How often are the queries executed per request? How many rows do they return?

Showin SQL hotspots that impact your database performance the most
You should now what kind of commands affect the database performance the most

It’s important to know that issues that materialize on the database level may be rooted elsewhere. Very often there is an issue related to the way a database is accessed.

Look at how often queries are called per request. Maybe you can reduce the number of actual database queries by improving the database cache of your service. Question everything. Is there any reason why a single query should be executed more than once per request? If there is, maybe you can unlock some potential performance by applying smart caching strategies.

4. Do you have enough database connections?

Even if the way you query your database is perfectly fine, you may still experience inferior database performance. If this is your situation, it’s time to check that your application’s database connection is correctly sized.

Showing the impact of connection acquisition time on database performance
Check to see if Connection Acquisition time comprises a large percentage of your database’s response time.

When configuring a connection pool there are two things to consider:

1) What is the maximum number of connections the database can handle?

2) What is the correct size connection pool required for your application?

Why shouldn’t you just set the connection pool size to the maximum? Because your application may not be the only client that’s connected to the database. If your application takes up all the connections, the database server won’t be able to perform as expected. However, if your application is the only client connected to the database, then go for it!

How to find out the maximum number of connections

You already confirmed in Step #1 that your database server is healthy. The maximum number of connections to the database is a function of the resources on the database. So to find the maximum number of connections, gradually increase load and the number of allowed connections to your database. While doing this, keep an eye on your database server’s metrics. Once they max out—either CPU, memory, or disk performance—you know you’ve reached the limit. If the number of available connections you reach is not enough for your application, then it’s time to consider upgrading your hardware.

Determine the correct size for your application’s connection pool

The number of allowed concurrent connections to your database is equivalent to the amount of parallel load that your application applies to the database server. There are tools available to help you in determining the correct number here. For Java, you might want to give log4jdbc a try.

Increasing load will lead to higher transaction response times, even if your database server is healthy. Measure the transaction response time from end-to-end to see if Connection Acquisition time takes up increasingly more time under heavy load. If it does, then you know that your connection pool is exhausted. If it doesn’t, have another look at your database server’s metrics to determine the maximum number of connections that your database can handle.

By the way, a good rule of thumb to keep in mind here is that a connection pool’s size should be constant, not variable. So set the minimum and maximum pool sizes to the same value.

5. Don’t forget about the network

We tend to forget about the physical constraints faced by our virtualized infrastructure. Nonetheless, there are physical constraints: cables fail and routers break. Unfortunately, the gap between works and doesn’t work usually varies. This is why you should keep an eye on your network metrics. If problems suddenly appear after months or even years of operating flawlessly, chances are that your infrastructure is suffering from a non-virtual, physical problem. Check your routers, check your cables, and check your network interfaces. It’s best to do this as early as possible following the first sign that there may be a problem because this may be the point in time when you can fix a problem before it impacts your business.

Image showing retransmission's impact on network performance
Retransmissions seriously impact network performance

Very often, over-stressed processes start to drop packets due to depleted resources. Just in case your network issue is not a hardware problem, process level visibility can definitely come in handy in identifying a failing component.

Database performance wrap up

Databases are sophisticated applications that are not built for bad performance or failure. Make sure your databases are securely hosted and resourced so that they can perform at their best.

Here’s what you’ll need to optimize your database:

  • Server data to check host health
  • Hypervisor and virtual machine metrics to ensure that your virtualization is okay
  • Application data to optimize database access
  • Network data to analyze the network impact of database communication.

There are many tools that can provide you with this information. I used Dynatrace for my examples here because it provides all the data I need in a single tool. Though, obviously, I am a bit biased.

Give it a try!

Dynatrace is free to use for 15 days! The trial stops automatically, no credit card is required. Just enter your email address, choose your cloud location and install our agent. Monitoring your database performance was never easier!

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